the usage of clauses and conditions in sentences complete sentences

If I do … and if I did…
When you imagine something like this, we use ‘if’ + past
(if I found/ if there was / if we didn’t etc.)
But the meaning is not past:
What would you do if you won a million pounds?
(We don’t really expect this to happen)
I don’t really want to go to their party, I probably will go. They’d be upset if I didn’t go.
If there was (or were) an election tomorrow. Who would you vote for?
We do not normally use ‘would’ in the ‘if’-part of the sentence:
I’d be very frightened if somebody pointed a gun at me. (not if somebody would point)
If I did not go to their party, they’d be upset. (not if I wouldn’t go)
But you can use ‘if’ … ‘would’ when you ask somebody to do something:
(formal letter) I would be grateful if you would let me know your decision as soon as possible.
Could and might are also possible:
If you took more exercise, you might feel better. (=it is possible that you would
feel better)
If it stopped raining, we could go out. (= we would be able to go out)
If I knew … I wish I knew …
When you imagine a situation like this, we use ‘if’ + past (if I knew / if you were / if we didn’t
etc. but the meaning is present, not past:
Tom would read more if he had more time. (but he doesn’t have much time)
If I didn’t want to go to the party, I wouldn’t go. (but I want to go)
We wouldn’t have any money if we didn’t work. (but we work)
If you were in my position, what would you do?
We use the past in the same way after wish (I wish I knew / I wish you were etc.) we use wish
To say that we regret something is not as we would like it to be:
I wish I knew Ria’s phone number.
(= I don’t know it and I regret this)
Do you ever wish you could fly?
(you can’t fly)
It rains a lot here. I wish there weren’t so.
I wish I didn’t have to work tomorrow, but unfortunately I do.
If I were / if I was
After ‘if’ and ‘wish’, you can use ‘were’ instead of ‘was’ (if were … / I wish it were etc.). So
you can say:
If I were you, you wouldn’t buy that coat. Or if I was you, …
I’d go out if it weren’t so cold. Or …if it wasn’t so cold.
I wish Carol were here. Or I wish Carol was here.
We do not normally use would in the if-part of the sentence or after wish:
If I were rich, I would have a yacht. (not if I would be rich)
If I had known …. I wish I had known …
We use if + had (’d) … to talk about the past (If I had known/been/done):
I didn’t see you when passed me in the street. If I’d seen you, of course I would have said hello.
(but I didn’t see you)
I decided to stay at home last night. I would have gone out if I hadn’t been so tired.
(but I was tired)
If he had been looking where he was going. He wouldn’t have walked into the wall.
(he wasn’t looking)
I’m not hungry. If I was hungry, I would eat something. (now)
I wasn’t hungry. If I had been hungry, I would have eaten something. (past)
Do not use would in the if –part of the sentence. We use would in the other part of the
If I had seen you, I would have said hello. (not if I would have seen you)
Note that ’d can be would or had:
If I’d seen you, (I’d seen = I had seen) I’d have said hello. (I’d have said = I would have said)
We use ‘had’ (done) the same way after ‘wish’.
I wish something had happened = I am sorry that it didn’t happen:
I wish I’d know that Galib was ill. I would have gone to seen him. (but I didn’t know)
I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much cake. (I ate too much cake)
Do you wish you had studied science instead of language? (you didn’t study science)
Do not use ‘would have’ … after ‘wish’:
The weather was cold while we were away. I wish it had been warmer. (not I wish it would have
Compare ‘would’ (do) and ‘would have’ (done):
If I had gone to the party last night, I would be tired now. (I am not tired now – present)
If I had gone to the party last night, I would have meet lots of people. (I didn’t meet lots of
people – past)
Compare ‘would have’, ‘could have’ and ‘might have’:
We would have gone out.
We could have gone out
If the weather hadn’t been so bad, (= we would have been able to go out)
We might have gone out.
(= perhaps we would have gone out)
You can say “I wish you luck / every success / a happy birthday” etc.:
I wish you every success in future.
I saw Ria before the exam and he wished me luck.
We say ‘wish somebody something’ (luck / a happy birthday etc.) but you cannot ‘wish that
Something happens’. We use hope in this situation. For example:
I hope you get this letter before you go away. (not I wish you have)
Compare ‘I wish’ and ‘I hope’:
I wish you a pleasant stay here.
I hope you have a pleasant stay here. (not I wish you have)
We also use to say that we regret something, that something is not as we would like it.
When we use wish in this way, we use the past (knew/lived etc.), but the meaning is present:
I wish I knew what to do about the problem. (I don’t know and I regret this)
I wish you didn’t have to go soon. (you have to go)
Do you wish you lived near the sea? (you don’t live near the sea)
Rahman’s going on a trip to Mexico soon. I wish I was going too. (I’m not going)
To say that we regret something in the past, we use wish + had … (had known / had said)
I wish I knew about the party. I would have gone if I’d known. (I didn’t know)
It was a stupid thing to say. I wish I hadn’t said it. (I said it)
I wish I could (do something) = I regret that I cannot do it:
I’m sorry I have to go. I wish I could stay longer. (but I can’t)
I’ve met that man before. I wish I could remember his name. (but I can’t)
I wish (do something) = I regret that I could not do it:
I hear the party was great. I wish I could have gone. (but I couldn’t go)
We often use ‘I wish’ … ‘would’ to complain about a situation:
The phone has been ringing for five minutes. I wish somebody would answer it.
I wish you would do something instead of just sitting and doing nothing.
You can use ‘I wish’ … ‘would’ to complain about things that people do repeatedly:
I wish you wouldn’t keep interrupting me.
We use ‘I wish’ … ‘would’ … for action and changes, not situations.
I wish Sarah would come. (= I want her to come)
But I wish Sarah was (or were) here now. (not I wish Sarah would be)
I wish somebody would buy me a car.
But I wish I had a car. (not I wish I would have)
Complete the following sentences:
1. If I have enough money, ………………
2. If I found her address, ……………….
3. If he gave her a sweet, ……………..
4. ……………….. he will take a taxi.
5. We would understand him, if ……….
6. I will prepare breakfast, if …………..
7. If I had time, ……….
8. ……………… you will get along with them perfectly.
9. …………. we will go to the zoo.
10. I would have told you, if ………..
Answer Key
1. I will go to Japan
2. I would send her an invitation
3. she would stop crying
4. If he arrives later,
5. he spoke slowly
6. I wake up early
7. I would go shopping with you.
8. If you speak English,
9. If she comes to see us,
10. I had seen him
Lesson 2 : Adding Clauses
By adding clauses in the following ways, you can complete a sentence:
 By Making Complex or Compound Sentences
 By adding Linkers/Conjunctions
• By Making Complex Sentences: (See Unit 6: Lesson 3)
I heated my coffee in the microwave, because my coffee was too cold.
Though he was very rich, he was still very unhappy.
She returned the computer after she noticed it was damaged.
When the cost goes up, customers buy less clothing.
As she was bright and ambitious, she became manager in no time.
When she was younger, she believed in fairy tales.
• By Making Compound Sentences: (See Unit 6: Lesson 3)
I think I will buy the red car, or I will lease the blue one.
I really want to go to work, but I am too sick to drive.
I am counting my calories, yet I really want dessert.
He ran out of money, so he had to stop playing poker.
They got there early, and they got really good seats.
There was no ice cream in the freezer, nor did they have money to go to the store.
We have never been to Asia, nor have we visited Africa.
• By adding Linkers/Conjunctions:
a) Contrasting Linkers
1. In spite of / Despite link two contrasting ideas, followed by a noun phrase.
Example: He arrived on time despite / in spite of getting up late.
2. Although / (Even) though link two contrasting ideas, followed by a sentence.
Example: Although / though / even though / in spite of the fact that the pupils had not studied,
they all passed their exams.
3. However / Nevertheless / Still / Yet / Even so / On the contrary / In contrast, introduce a new
idea which marks a contrast with previously stated ideas, introduced by a comma.
Example: He was quite ill however/ nevertheless/ even so, he went to school.
Raj did not perform well in the exam; nevertheless, he got a distinction in English.
4. On the one hand links two contrasting ideas / paragraphs:
Example: I like tea. On the other hand, she likes coffee.
5. In contrast to / Contrary to/ On the contrary link two contrasting ideas, followed by a noun
Example: I like tea. On the contrary, she hates it.
6. Whereas links two contrasting ideas, not separated by commas.
Example: This film is very interesting, while/whereas that one is quite boring.
7. But / yet is followed by a noun phrase or a sentence.
Example: The book is short but / yet interesting.
b) Reason and Cause Linkers
1. Because / As / Since / Seeing that introduce a sentence:
Example: Because / as / since / seeing that it’s late, we should go home.
2. Because of / On account of / Owing to / Due to introduce a noun phrase:
Example: Because of / on account of / owing to / due to the weather, we stayed at home.
c) Purpose Linkers
1. In order to / So as to introduce an infinitive of purpose:
Example: She uses her video in order to / so as to / to record TV programmes.
2. In order that / So that introduce a sentence:
Example: She studied so that she can pass the exam.
d) Consequence Linkers
Consequently / As a consequence / As a result / Therefore:
Example: As a result of his brave action, he was awarded a military medal.
There is a students’ procession today; therefore, they diverted the traffic.
e) Addition
1. Moreover / Furthermore / In addition / Besides / are used after a strong pause and separated
from the sentences. They are introduced by a comma.
Example: In addition to soul music, she likes rap.
It is very hot today; moreover, there is a power outage.

2. As well as / In addition to / Besides are used to add one more piece of information, followed
by a noun phrase.
Example: Apart from English, she speaks French.
f) Exemplification
1. For example / For instance introduces an example referring to previously stated ideas.
Example: Vegetables are a good source of vitamins: for example / for instance, oranges have
vitamin C.
Complete the following sentences:
1. Though he was late, __________.
2. I wish ___________.
3. Do you know when ____________?
4. It is high time ____________.
5. As soon as we reached the station, __________.
6. No sooner had he reached the class _____________.
7. Please wait here until __________.
8. If I had 10 million taka, ____________.
HSC Programme
Unit 4 Page # 94
9. Study attentively lest ____________.
10. He works hard so that _____________.
Answer Key
1. he finished the work.
2. I could fly like a bird.
3. the next train will arrive?
4. we stopped air pollution.
5. the train left.
6. than the bell rang.
7. I come back.
8. I would buy a car.
9. you should fail.
10. he can shine in life.
Lesson 3 : Proverbs

Proverbial sentences have to be exact as it is used. Here are few common proverbs
used often:
1. "Two wrongs don't make a right."
Meaning: When someone has done something bad to you, trying to get revenge will only make
things worse.
2. "The pen is mightier than the sword."
Meaning: Trying to convince people with ideas and words is more effective than trying to force
people to do what you want.
3. "When in Rome, do as the Romans."
Meaning: Act the way that the people around you are acting. This phrase might come in handy
when you're traveling abroad notice that people do things differently than you're used to.
4. "Fortune favors the bold."
Meaning: People who bravely go after what they want are more successful than people who try
to live safely.
5. "People who live in glass houses should not throw stones."
Meaning: Don't criticize other people if you're not perfect yourself.
6. "Birds of a feather flock together."
Meaning: People like to spend time with others who are similar to them.
7. "There's no such thing as a free lunch."
Meaning: Things that are offered for free always have a hidden cost.
8. "The early bird catches the worm."
Meaning: You should wake up and start work early if you want to succeed.
9. "God helps those who help themselves."
Meaning: Don't just wait for good things to happen to you. Work hard to achieve your goals.
10. "Cleanliness is next to godliness."
Meaning: Be clean. God likes that.
11. "Beggars can't be choosers."
Meaning: If you're asking for a favor from someone else, you have to take whatever they give
12. "Actions speak louder than words."
Meaning: Just saying that you'll do something doesn't mean much. Actually doing it is harder
and more meaningful.
13. "Practice makes perfect."
Meaning: You have to practice a skill a lot to become good at it.
14. "Too many cooks spoil the broth."
Meaning: When there are too many people trying to lead and give their opinions, it's confusing
and leads to bad results. Jobs and projects should have one or two strong leaders.
15. "Easy come, easy go."
Meaning: When you get money quickly, like by winning it, it's easy to spend it or lose it quickly
as well.
16. "One man's trash is another man's treasure."
Meaning: Different people have different ideas about what's valuable.
17. "Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."
Meaning: Different people have different ideas about what's beautiful.
18. "Necessity is the mother of invention."
Meaning: When you're really in need, you think of creative solutions to your problems.
19. "Familiarity breeds contempt."
Meaning: When you're around someone for too long, you get tired of them and annoyed by
20. "You can't judge a book by its cover."
Meaning: Things sometimes look different than they really are. A restaurant that looks old and
small might have amazing food, for example.
21. "The grass is always greener on the other side of the hill."
Meaning: People tend to want whatever they don't have.
22. "Honesty is the best policy."
Meaning: Don't lie.
23. "Don't count your chickens before they hatch."
Meaning: Your plans might not work out, so don't start thinking about what you'll do after you
succeed. Wait until you've already succeeded, and then you can think about what to do next.
Complete the following sentences:
1. Don’t judge a book ____________.
2. Hell hath no fury _____________.
3. Too many cooks ____________.
4. When in Rome, _____________.
5. Where there’s a will, _____________.
6. Don’t make a mountain _____________.
7. Two wrongs ______________.
8. It’s better to be safe __________.
9. Still waters __________.
10. A rolling stone ____________.
Answer Key
1. by its cover.
2. like a woman scorned.
3. spoil the broth.
4. do as the Romans do.
5. there’s a way.
6. out of an anthill.
7. don’t make a right.
8. than sorry.
9. run deep.
10. gathers no moss.


বাংলা রচনা সমূহ
বাংলা ভাষা ও সাহিত্য
English Essay All
English Grammar All
English Literature All
সাধারণ জ্ঞান বাংলাদেশ বিষয়াবলী
সাধারণ জ্ঞান আন্তর্জাতিক বিষয়াবলী
ভূগোল (বাংলাদেশ ও বিশ্ব), পরিবেশ ও দুর্যোগ ব্যবস্থাপনা
বি সি এস প্রস্তুতি: কম্পিউটার ও তথ্য প্রযুক্তি
বি সি এস প্রস্তুতি: নৈতিকতা, মূল্যবোধ ও সু-শাসন
বি সি এস প্রস্তুতি: সাধারণবিজ্ঞান
বাংলা ভাষার ব্যাকরণ
বাংলাদেশ ও বিশ্ব পরিচয়

Copyright © Quality Can Do Soft.
Designed and developed by Sohel Rana, Assistant Professor, Kumudini Government College, Tangail. Email: [email protected]