Rules of Transforming Superlative/Comparative/Positive Sentences:

According to degree of adjective, sentences are three kinds:
1. Positive Sentence
2. Comparative Sentence
3. Superlative Sentence
Rules of Transforming Superlative/Comparative/Positive Sentences:
1. No other... as…as (Positive) --- Comparative form of adjective + than any other
(Comparative) --- superlative form of adjective (Superlative):
Positive: No other city is as big as Dhaka in Bangladesh.
Comparative: Dhaka is bigger than any other city in Bangladesh.
Superlative: Dhaka is the biggest city in Bangladesh.
2. Very few... (Positive) --- comparative form of adjective + than most other
(Comparative) --- one of the + superlative form of adjective (Superlative):
Positive: Very few metals are as precious as gold.
Comparative: Gold is more precious than most other metals.
Superlative: Gold is one of the most precious metals.
Some are transformed by using ‘not’:
Positive: Karim is as good as Rahim.
Comparative: Rahim is not better than Karim.
Exercise A
Change from Positive to Comparative Degree
1. No other dish in the menu is as cheap as mutton chop.
2. Very few countries in the world are as small as Bangladesh.
3. He is as strong as lion.
Exercise B
Change from Comparative into Superlative Degree
1. Rumi is better than any other boy in the class.
2. Shimu is smaller than most other girls in the team.
3. Chittagong is bigger than any other seaport in Bangladesh.
Exercise C
Change from Superlative into Positive Degree
1. It writes the finest of any pen.
2. The cow is one of the most useful animals.
3. Shakespeare is the greatest of all dramatists.
Answer Key
1. Mutton chop is cheaper than any other dish on the menu.
HSC Programme
Unit 6 Page # 136
2. Bangladesh is smaller than most other countries in the world.
3. He is not less strong than a lion.
1. Rumi is the best boy in the class.
2. Shimu is one of the smallest girls in the team.
3. Chittagong is the biggest seaport in Bangladesh.
1. No other pen writes as good as it.
2. Very few animals are as useful as the cow.
3. No other dramatist is as great as Shakespeare.
Lesson 5 : Active and Passive Sentences

Active Sentence means the subject of the sentence is the doer of the action.
He (subject: doer) plays football.
Passive Sentence means the subject of the sentence is not the doer of the action. In three
situations, passive is mandatory:
a. When the subject is unknown
b. When the subject is unnecessary to mention
c. When the speaker wants to hide the subject
Note: Learn more in Unit 4 about Active and Passive Voice
He (subject: non-doer) was arrested last night.
Note: Here the doer is the police which is hidden in the meaning and it is unnecessary to mention
this subject.
Active : I must do it.
Passive : It must be done by me.
While transforming, the object (non-doer) in the active becomes the subject (non-doer) in the
passive. And the subject in the active becomes the object. Usually preposition ‘by’ is used in the
passive to add the subject in the active.
Finite Verb changes according to the table of tense:
Tense Active Passive
1. Present Simple v1 am/is/are + v3
2. Present Continuous: am/is/are + v1 + ing am/is/are + being + v3
3. Present Perfect has/have been + v1 + ing has/have + been + v3
4. Present Perfect Continuous has/have been + v1 + ing has/have + been + being + v3
5. Past Simple v2 was/were + v3
6. Past continuous was/were + v1 + ing was/were + being + v3
7. Past Perfect had + v3 had + been + v3
8. Past Perfect Continuous had been + v1 + ing had been + being + v3
9. Future Simple will + v1 will be + v3
10. Future Continuous will be + v1 + ing will be being + v3
11. Future Perfect will have + v3 will have been + v3
12. Future Perfect Continuous will have been + v1 + ing
will have been + being + v3
Affirmative Sentence
Passive: Geetanjali was written by Tagore.
Here the subject ‘Geetanjali’ is the subject and it is not the doer of the verb ‘written’. The doer
is ‘Tagore’ which is an object (predicate) here. When non-doer becomes subject, the sentence is
called Passive. And as it is in Past Simple Tense, so the structure is:
Subject + was/were + v3 (past participle form of verb) + object. (No 5 in the table)
Active: Tagore wrote Geetanjali.
Here Tagore is the subject and the doer. So the sentence is Active. As it is in Past Simple Tense,
the structure is: Subject + v2 (past form of verb) + object.
When the doer is unknown, ‘by + object’ is not used:
Passive: My watch was stolen.
Here the doer (who did the action) is unknown, so there is object in the sentence.
In some cases, when the object in active is material or substance, ‘by’ preposition is not used, rather than ‘with’ is used:
Active: Gas filled the kitchen.
Passive: The kitchen is filled with gas.
Sometimes, there are two objects (non-doers) in active sentences.
For example:
Active: He teaches us English.
‘English’ and ‘us’ both are objects and non-doers. It can be made passive in two ways. Both are
Passive: English is taught to us by him.
Passive: We are taught English by him.
Unchanged extension/compliment of verb:
Active: They kept me waiting.
Passive: I was kept waiting.
Here the word waiting is the compliment of the verb and it is not changed in passive.
Some sentences are always passive:
For example: Get + past participle:
I got dressed as quickly as possible.
Someone got hurt in the accident.
Other prepositions except ‘by’:
Active: Your conduct surprises me.
Passive: I am surprised at your conduct.
Active: This news alarmed us
Passive: We are alarmed at this news.
With infinitive:
(Bare infinitive words, See Unit 3, Lesson 3)
Active: make/see/hear/help/watch + v1
Passive: make/see/hear/help/watch + to + v1
Active: He made me laugh.
Passive: I was made to laugh.
Active: He saw a mango fall.
Passive: A mango was seen to fall.
In case of infinitive:
Active: To + v1
Passive: To + be + v3
Active: I want to do it.
Passive: It is wanted to be done by me.
Note: Here both verbs (finite and non-finite) are changing.
In case of Modal:
Active: Modal + v1
Passive: Modal + be + v3
Active: I can do it.
Passive: It can be done by me.
Interrogative Sentence
a. Do/did/does in active sentences becomes is/are/was/were in passive sentences.
Active: Do you want it?
Passive: Is it wanted by you?
b. question statements with auxiliary verbs in active sentences:
Active: Can they solve this?
Passive: Can this be solved by them?
HSC Programme
Unit 6 Page # 140
c. In ‘Wh’ question word sentences:
Active: What do you want?
Passive: What is wanted by you?
Imperative Sentence
In case of order/command:
A passive imperative begins with ‘let’, followed by the object in the active.
Passive: Let + subject + be + v3 (past participle)
Active: Let her to wait here.
Passive: Let her be told to wait here.
Active: Close all the gates.
Passive: Let all the gates be closed.
In case of advice/suggestion:
Passive: should/must + be + past participle
Active: Take medicine on time.
Passive: Medicine should be taken on time.
Imperative request:
Active: Please give me some more time.
Passive: You are requested to give me some more time.
Multiple Clauses
In case of ‘it is..’ or ‘there is…’ the first clause remains unchanged, and the rest changes
according to structure.
Active: It is time to change our home.
Passive: It is time our home to be changed.
Active: There is no time to lose.
Passive: There is no time to be lost.
In other cases, the whole object becomes the subject:
Active: Everyone says that he is a fool.
Passive: That he is a fool is said by everyone.
In case of universal/general statements, ‘it is believed’, or ‘it is hoped’, ‘it is said’ is used in
passive. The rest of the clause remains unchanged.
Active: People believe that he is skilled.
Passive: It is believed that he is skilled.
Compound Sentences
Active: They draft applications and type them.
Passive: Applications are drafted and typed.
Taking a new verb:
Active: He reads two hours.
Passive: Two hours are taken in reading by him.
Universal truth:
Active: The sun rises in the East.
Passive: It is said the sun rises in the East.
When adjective is object in active:
Active: Honey tastes sweet.
Passive: Honey is sweet when it is tasted.

When subject is the object of the verb:
Active: The cows are milking.
Passive: The cows are being milked.
Change the sentences into passive:
1. The people of Bangladesh mainly eat rice.
2. He annoys me.
3. Panic seized me.
4. Fire burnt the ship.
5. The lady fans herself.
6. Honey tastes sweet.
7. The man knew me.
8. Are they making a noise is the class?
9. Buy me a book.
10. Do the work.
Answer Key
1. Mainly rice is eaten in Bangladesh.
2. I am annoyed at him.
3. I was seized with panic.
4. The ship was burnt.
5. The lady is fanned by herself.
6. Honey is sweet when tasted.
7. I was known to the man.
8. Is noise being made by them in the class?
9. Let a book be bought for me.
10. Let the work be done.


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