Subject verb agreement-Rules 1-8

a. Subject verb agreement-Rules 1-8

Subject Verb Agreement

Subject এবং verb এর মধ্যে number এবং person অনুযায়ী মিল বা সম্পর্ক থাকলে তাকে subject verb agreement বলে। নিম্নে কিছু নিয়ম বর্ণনা করা হলো:

Rule 1: Noun শব্দগত বা অর্থগত যে কোন দিক হতে Plural হলে (অর্থগত Plural যেমন: public, mob, people etc.) Verb/Pronoun টি-ও plural হবে। Example: 1. The police (were) walking along the street and (they) were followed by a group of detectives. / 2.  Poultry (are) roaming in the pasture.

Rule 2: (Each +Singular Noun)+ and+(Each +singular Noun) হলে Verb/Pronoun Singular অথবা (Every +singular noun)+and+(every +singular noun) হলে Verb/Pronoun singular. যেমন- Each instructor and every student in this building (hopes) for a new facility by the next year. তবে, Every +singular noun and plural noun +plural verb/pronoun. Example: Every student and instructors ( hope) for a new facility by the next year.

Rule 3: Majority/ Minority +Plural Noun/Pronoun-Plural verb. Example: Majority of the specialists (believe) that smoking is deleterious to (their) health. / Minority of them (have) supported the candidate.

কিন্তু Majority, minority সরাসরি (Noun/pronoun) ছাড়া বসলে  Verb singular হবে। Majority/Minority---- Singular verb. Example: 1. Majority (believes) that smoking is deleterious to health. / 2. Minority (has) supported the candidate.

Rule 4:  Real Subject অনুযায়ী verb হবে। অর্থাৎ preposition এর পূর্ববর্তী Norn/Pronoun অনুযায়ী verb হবে। Subject +Prepositional phrase—verb. Example: 1. The horror of it all (is) too much for Boyde. / 2. Politics prevailing in the states (is) sometimes a dirty business and (it) should be stopped. / 3. A large percentage of the older population (is) voting against her.

Rule 5: both-----and---- হলে verb/pronoun plural হবে। Example:  At first both of the horses (were) nervous but (they) ran very well. /  Both pavel and Hafsa (are) zealous.

Rule 6: together with / along with / accompanied by /with / as well as / with+ কোন কিছু/ব্যক্তি / and not/ but not   + Noun/Pronoun +verb থাকলে ১ম অংশের Sub অনুযায়ী verb হবে (formula-তে প্রদত্ত noun/pronoun অনুযায়ী নয়) । Example: The mayor together with his two brothers (is) going to deliver (his) speech. / The piano as well as the pipe organs (has) to be tuned for the big concert. / The international club, as well as the choral society and the rowing club, (needs) to submit a new constitution(itself). / The big dipper as well as many other constellations (is,) easy to find.

Rule 7: Noun of Multitude: একই মত, ধারণা, কাজ পোষণ করলে ---Verb/pronoun Singular, ভিন্ন ভিন্ন মত, ধারণা, কাজ পোষণ করলে-----Verb/Pronoun Plural. ( Club, class, congress, parliament, gang, gaggle etc. এরা Noun of Multitude.) Example: The committee (were) taking all the responsibilities (themselves) / The class (is) going to arrange a debate. / The class (are) in different views about the topic.

Rule 8: Collective Expressions. যেমন- A herd of cattle / A gaggle of girls / A pack of dogs / A Pride of lions/  A school of fish/es / A gang of rogues / A chorus of singers + Singular Verb/Pronoun. Example: A box of books as well as a large suitcase (is,) under the bed and (it) (was) covered. /  A pride of lions (is) approaching to the baby. /  A gang of rogues (is) coming forward. / A pack of dogs (has) been appointed to guard the meeting.

b. Subject verb agreement-Rules 9-17

Subject Verb Agreement

Subject এবং verb এর মধ্যে number এবং person অনুযায়ী মিল বা সম্পর্ক থাকলে তাকে subject verb agreement বলে। নিম্নে কিছু নিয়ম বর্ণনা করা হলো:

Rule 9: Gerund/Infinitive/that clause: Gerund দিয়ে Sentence শুরু হলে Verb/Pronoun Singularহবে। Example: 1. Smoking in open daylight (is) highly harmful for health and (it) should be stopped. / 2. Drinking sufficient milk (keeps) our brain cool.

Rule 10: Sub+V+ One of+N/P+who+verb plural , Sub+V+the one of+N/P + who+verb singular, Sub+V+ only one of+ N/P+who+verb singular. Example: Carlos is the only one of those students who (has) proved (his) performance. /  Hartford is one of those cities that (are) working hard to reclaim a riverfront. / He is one of the employees who (work) overtime regularly.

Rule 11: A number +Plural verb, The number +singular verb. Example: A number of students (have) submitted (his/her/their) assignments. / The number of agitating people (is) not negligible and (it) should be reduced.

Rule 12: One of+ plural noun/pronoun +verb singular. Example: One of my instructors (has) written a letter of recommendation for me. / One of my best friends (is) an extra on Seinfeld this week.

Rule 13: Percentage(শতকরা) বা Fraction(ভগ্নাংশ) থাকলে: i. Noun/Pronoun Uncountable/Singular হলে verb/pronoun singular হবে (অর্থাৎ its হবে)। ii. Noun/Pronoun টি countable এবং plural হলে- verb/pronoun plural হবে। Example: Two-fifths of the troops (were) lost in the battle. / Two-fifths of the vineyard (was) destroyed by fire. / Forty percent of the students (are) in favor of changing the policy. / One third of the milk ( has) lost (its) food value.

Rule 14: কোন Noun/Pronoun এর পূর্বে not-----/but not/and not থাকলে তা (noun/pronounটি) subject গণনার ক্ষেত্রে বাদ যাবে।Example: It is not the faculty members but the president who (decides) this issue (himself). / The department members but not the chair (have) decided not to teach on Valentine’s Day. / It was the speaker and not his ideas that ( has) provoked the students to riot.

Rule 15: Amount of Time, Money, Distance সর্বদা Singular. Example: Two and two (is) four. / Four years (is) a long time to spend away from your friends and family. / Four times four divided by two (is) eight. / “jaws”, a movie about sharks, (was) seen by a record number of people and (it) (was) a thriller.

Rule 16: কিছু কিছু Noun যারা দেখতে Plural-এর মত, অথচ Meaning -Singular তাদের Verb/Pronoun- Singular হবে। আবার কিছু কিছু Noun যারা দেখতে Singular-এর মত, অথচ  Meaning -plural তাদের verb/pronoun - plural হবে। Example: People (are) highly astonished seeing such a good performance from such an amateur. / Mathematics (is) a very easy subject but (it) needs a lot of practice. /  Measles (has) become less common in the United States and (it) will be extinct shortly.

Rule 17: One হলে অবশ্যই (possessive pronounহিসেবে) One’s হবে।তবে No one থাকলে his/her হবে।Example:  One should respect one’s teachers. /  No one should leave away his/her homework.

c. Subject verb agreement-Rules 18-26

Subject Verb Agreement

Subject এবং verb এর মধ্যে number এবং person অনুযায়ী মিল বা সম্পর্ক থাকলে তাকে subject verb agreement বলে। নিম্নে কিছু নিয়ম বর্ণনা করা হলো:

Rule 18: Relative Pronoun যার পরিবর্তে বসবে তা অনুযায়ী Pronoun/verb হবে। Example: It is Tanha who (has) solved (her) problem.

Rule 19: কোন Sentence-এ and দ্বারা একধিক  Noun/Pronoun যুক্ত থাকলে  verb/Pronoun-টি plural হবে। Example:  The blacksmith and the pub owner (step) forward. / Rafiq and Kamrul (are) going to find the new syllabus for (their) next semesters. তবে,

i) একই রকম/রীতি, ধারণা বুঝালে বা একই ব্যক্তিকে বুঝালে; যেমন- Bread and butter/ Time and tide /Horse and carriage/ Beauty and lovely / Soup and salad     / Tea and coffee /Honesty and integrity এরা singular হিসেবে বসে, সুতরাং  verb/pronoun singular হবে।কিন্তু, আলাদা আলাদা বুঝালে Verb/pronoun plural হবে। Example:  Rice and beans, my favorite dish, (reminds) me of my native Puerto Rico for (its) good test. /  The student newspaper and the student council(Meet) on Tuesday afternoons and the speaker will trace out the relationship between (them).

ব্যক্তিবাচকের ক্ষেত্রে--- The principal and the secretary are coming to submit their proposals.(ভিন্ন ভিন্ন ব্যক্তি)/ The principal and secretary is coming to submit his proposal.(একই ব্যক্তি)

Rule 20: Correlative Conjunction: Either --------or---------- / Neither-------- not--------- / Not only ----------- but also--------থাকলে Verb-এর নিকটবর্তী  subject অনুযায়ী verb/pronoun হবে।Example: Either an atlas or an almanac (is) sure to have the answer to your question about the topography of Mexico. / Not only the spider but also all other arachnids (have) four pairs of legs which have made (them) distinguished from other species. / Neither the teacher nor the students (seem) to understand this assignment. / Either the Committee on Course Design or the committee on college Operations (decides) these matters. /  (Has) either my father or my brothers made a down-payment on the house?

বি:দ্র:-এখানে Verb এর নিকটবর্তী  subject-My father অনুযায়ী verb-has হয়েছে।

Rule 21: Each, every, either, neither, many a/an এরা সরাসরি  singular verb/pronoun গ্রহন করে। Example: Each of them (asks) him many questions in (his/her) turn. / Everybody in the class (has) done (his/her) home work well in advance. / Neither of my two suitcases (is) adequate for this trip. / Many a lawyer (takes) his/her seat in the courtroom.

Rule 22: No+body, thing,one /Every+body,thing,one / Some+ body,thing,one / Any+ body,thing,one +Singular verb. Example:  Everyone has done (his/her) homework. /  Somebody (has) left (her) purse. / Anybody was capable of doing (his/her) duty.

Rule 23: No/None+plural Noun/Pronoun+plural verb/ pronoun. Example: None of them (claim) responsibility for this incident. / None of the students (have) done (their) homework.

Rule 24: Several, few, many, other, others এরা সরাসরি plural verb গ্রহণ করে।Example: Few of the apples (are) still hanging on the tree and a thief was looking at (them). /  Several of the children (were) painting the wall with (their) fingers./ Several (were) present in the meeting

Rule 25: Some, more, most, rest, all, majority, minority, a lot of, a great deal of এরা যে Noun কে নির্দেশ করে তা অনুযায়ী  verb/pronoun হবে। অর্থাৎ- এরা+ Non-count Noun হলে  verb/pronoun Singular হবে। এরা+ Plural Noun/pronoun হলে verb/pronoun Plural হবে। Example:  Most of the milk (has) gone bad and (it/them) should be thrown away. Six cans of milk (are) / still in the refrigerator and two of (them/her/his) (are) damaged. / Some of the grain(has) gone bad. / Some of the cake (was) left on the table. / Some of the boxes (were) opened and thrown in the trash.

Rule 26: Here , there এর পরবর্তী Noun অনুযায়ী Verb/Pronoun হবে।Example: There (is) a list of committee members on the head-table and the president hung (it) himself. /  There (are) two reasons for this mishap and each of (them) should be analyzed.


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